A web application or web app is a client–server computer
program where the client runs in a web browser.
A web developer is a programmer specialising in applications
which run over HTTP from a web server to a web browser.
In software engineering, usability is the efficiency,
effectiveness and satisfaction experienced by the end-user.
Motion graphics is the commercial application of animation and
effects to video, film, TV, and interactive content.
An e-zine or ezine is an online magazine, often but not
always a ‘digital edition’ of an offline print magazine.
A browser game is a game played over the Internet using a web
browser, usually based on HTML5 technologies.
Print-on-demand is a system where books and other
publications can be produced in singular or small quantities.
DAM or digital asset management refers to the
recording, storage and distribution of digital media and documents.
A Microsite is a single page or a small cluster of
pages which functions as a discrete entity within an existing website.
E-commerce refers to any online transaction where buying or
selling happens, for example in a shopping website.
A business simulation can be used for training, education or
analysis, and can sometimes take the form of a game.
In a multiplayer video game, more than one person can play in
the same game environment at the same time.
WebGL frameworks, libraries and game engines speed up the
process of building 3D web content.
Serious games are used for training, education and team
building, but they should still be fun and engaging.
In engineering, functional specification documents are a
technical response to clients’ requirements documents.
A wireframe is a blueprint or schematic used to represents the
skeletal framework of a website or application.
In 3D, a physics engine provides an approximate simulation of
systems like fluid dynamics and rigid body dynamics.
In 3D graphics, Shadow mapping or shadowing projection is the
process of adding shadows to a rendered scene.
Depth of Field
Lens characteristics like depth of field, focal length and
focus can be simulated in web 3D, using WebGL effects.
A pseudorandom number generator is an algorithm that
maps random seeds to long random-looking number sequences.
Although simpler than graphical user interfaces, Text-based
interfaces are more advanced than command-line interfaces.
Web apps are deployed to a production server after the build,
test, lint and commit steps have been completed.
Source code is the set of text files that developers actually
work on — the files which an automated build-process will use.
During a software build, multiple source code files may be
concatenated (joined) into a single long source code file.
A transpiler or source-to-source compiler converts
code between two high-level programming languages.
Minification is the process of removing all unnecessary
characters from source code without changing how it works.
Visual identity expresses the values and ambitions of an
organisation, and is usually defined in a brand guidelines document.
A cross-platform web app or website works correctly on all
modern web browsers, operating systems and devices.
Retro gaming is the playing and appreciation of classic video
games from the 1970s to the early 2000s.
Mechanics are the rules and structure of a video game world,
and the methods for players to interact with it.
Following the wireframes stage, mockups are created to
define in detail how a website or application will look.
Audience analysis ensures that a website or application’s
content is appropriate for the intended end-users.
Breakout is a 1976 Atari arcade game. The aim is to destroy
layers of bricks by bouncing a ball off a movable bat.
80s Arcade Games
Following the golden age of arcade games in the early 80s,
home consoles took over in the second half of the decade.
Balancing a game is the art of making it fun and challenging
for players of all experience levels and abilities.
High Score Tables
A video game sometimes publishes a high score table — a list
of players who have scored the most points.
Page orientation is the direction a rectangular page is
oriented for normal viewing: landscape or portrait.
Full Stack JS
and the server, sometimes reusing code in both places.
Push technology is a style of Internet-based communication
where requests are initiated by the server, not the client.
In reactive programming, the developer defines ongoing
relationships and dependencies between data streams.
Multi User Worlds
In a multi user virtual environment, users can communicate
with each other while participating in virtual activities.
Any database than does not store data in a table (relational) can be
called NoSQL. Examples are Mongo, Redis and Neo4j.
A database journal is a log file containing all the actions
which a database has run, and therefore its complete ‘undo’ history.
Data security means protecting data from destructive forces
and unauthorized users, such as a cyberattack
Web server performance is its maximum workload.
Estimating a server’s performance is called benchmarking.
Administratration of a web server involves user accounts,
benchmarking, security and updating server software.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and
reporting of visitor data, to help improve a website.
Web apps and websites often use an email API during user
registration, and sometimes for marketing or updates.
Micro conversions are small steps made by a website visitor
towards a ‘macro conversion’, for example a purchase.
In an accessible website or application, visitors of all
abilities have equal access to content and functionality.
I18n and L10n
Internationalisation and localisation allows apps to adapt
to languages and market requirements in different regions.
Social media sharing buttons provide a quick way for website
visitors to tell their followers about a page or article.
Image slideshows or sliders allow a website to display
multiple images, and add a sense of movement to the page.
A Modal dialog or modal window is a UI element which
users have to interact with before they can proceed.
In WordPress, hooks allow plugin functions to be called at
the proper moment, while keeping code decoupled.
Indentation is a stylistic convention which helps make
computer code, especially its block-structure, more readable.
In coding, comments are annotations, ignored when the program
runs, which help explain the developer’s intentions.
Screen readers are an assistive technology which provide
text-to-speech synthesis of web and other content.
photography is the art and practice of creating images with a
camera and associated accessories.
Retouching involves altering a photograph: typically using
Photoshop to remove blemishes and improve impact.
illustration is the art of creating images for published
media, such as posters, magazines, animations and websites.
icon design is the art of designing a graphic symbol that
represents some real, imaginary or abstract concept.
Sub-editing is the process of improving the accuracy,
readability and fitness-for-purpose of written material.
proofreading is the final stage of print production: carefully
detecting and correcting errors in text, art or layout.
3D Design is the art of creating representations of objects
as 3D models, to be rendered on-screen or 3D printed.
UX and UI design
UX and UI design is the art of making the user’s interaction
as simple and efficient as possible, thus maximising usability.
A game designer defines goals, challenges and rules to
produce an engaging and balanced game experience.
Graphic Design is the process of visual communication and
problem-solving using typography and images.
Project management is the initiating, planning, running
and completing of a team’s work on a particular job.
Sound design is the process of specifying, acquiring,
manipulating or generating audio elements.
Web development is the technical work of building a website.
SEO stands for search engine optimisation. It is the
process of improving a website’s visibility in search engine results.
Part of HTML5, Web Audio allows audio input, playback and
synthesis, as well as speech to text, in a web browser.
Part of HTML5, Web Components provide a standard framework for
templates and reusable widgets in the browser.
for virtual reality devices in web browsers.
alongside HTML and CSS, is a core web technology.
HTML or Hypertext Markup Language is the standard way
of giving web content structure and semantic meaning.
Cascading Style Sheets is a language used to describe how
a web page’s HTML content should be presentated.
PHP is a server-side scripting language for web development
and general-purpose programming.
SQL or Structured Query Language is used for querying,
modifying and managing relational databases.
C# is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language
created by Microsoft within its .NET initiative.
which help when building large-scale web applications.
A shell script or bash script is a program which runs
on the Linix or OS X command-line. Used for simple back-end tasks.
the DOM API, and normalises browser quirks.
animated 3D computer graphics in a web browser.
Three.js has an advanced transition and animation system,
which can handle rigged models, property tweens and keyframes.
A-Frame is a library for building VR experiences in the
browser. Vive, Rift, Daydream and GearVR are all supported.
command line. It supports Windows, Linux and OS X.
The Underscore library provides a toolkit of over 100 handy
Gulp is a task runner used for automation of repetitive build
tasks like minification, unit testing, optimisation and linting.
any testing framework — Mocha, for example.
WordPress is a content management system (CMS) used by nearly
30% of the top 10 million websites.
prototyping of cross-platform browser, Android and iOS apps.
Phaser is a framework for making 2D HTML5 games for
desktop and mobile browsers, with Canvas and WebGL rendering.
Bootstrap is a front-end framework for creating websites and
web apps, with templates for various UI elements.
Foundation is a highly customizable responsive front-end
framework for any device, medium and accessibility.
advanced single-page web apps.
Angular is a TypeScript-based front-end web app framework
from Google, which targets modern browsers.
React is a web app framework by Facebook and Instagram,
React, although it can work with any framework.
Atom is a git-savvy code editor for Windows, Linux and OS X,
Animate is the new name for Flash. It’s used for
creating web apps and animations, and can now publish to HTML5.
Photoshop is a raster graphics editor created in 1988. It’s
now so famous that “photoshopped” has entered the dictionary.
The PSD format keeps the full construction of a Photoshop
session, including transparency, layers and text.
InDesign is a desktop publishing application, used to create
posters, brochures, magazines and presentations.
Illustrator is a vector graphics editor created in 1987, for
rendering logos, icons, typography, and complex illustrations
Unity is a VR-savvy game engine which targets a broad range of
consoles, mobile devices and desktop computers.
Balsamiq is software for creating early-stage sketches and
mockups of a planned application or website.
since 2009, introducing dozens of new features.
making code more succinct, readable and faster to type.
MongoDB is a NoSQL, document-oriented database. Its storage
ActionScript is a strongly typed object-oriented programming
language used within Apache Flex and Adobe Flash.
WooCommerce is an easy to customise, easy to use WordPress
plugin which runs about 30% of all e-commerce sites.
A responsive layout aims to make content look great whatever
the size, shape or orientation of the browser window.
Themes make it easy to change WordPress sites’ look and
functionality, without altering the core code or site content.
Plugins make it easy to extend WordPress sites’ widgets and
features, whatever theme is currently being used.
Joomla, launched in 2005, is the Internet’s second most
popular content management system (CMS) after WordPress.
IIS Windows Server
Microsoft IIS or Internet Information Services is the
third most popular web server after Apache and Nginx.
GitHub is the world’s largest web-based Git repository, with
around 20 million users and 60 million repos.
GitHub Webhooks are a set of user-defined URLs which GitHub’s
server will visit whenever certain repo events occur.
MySQL is an open source relational database released in 1995.
It is the ‘M’ part of the commonly used ‘LAMP’ stack.
The LAMP Stack
The LAMP stack is a free and open source web server setup,
comprising Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP.
Google Translate is a machine translation service that
understands text and speech in over 100 languages.
Handlebars adds several useful features to the Mustache
templating language, like nested paths and helpers.
Less is a style sheet language that compiles to CSS. Its
features include variables, mixins, nesting and functions.
X3D is the W3C’s XML-style markup language for describing 3D
scenes. It replaces VRML and adds many new features.
browser. It’s used by libraries like Three.js and D3.
WebSockets open a fast two-way communication
channel between server and browser, based on the ws:// protocol.
data, useful for storage and transmission.
Iron Router is a router that works on the server and the
browser, designed specifically for Meteor.
3D scenes in modern web browsers.
manipulating, validating and displaying dates and times.
NPM is a command-line package manager, and also an online
Git is a version control system for tracking edits to files,
and coordinating work on those files among a team.
Grunt is a task runner used for automation of repetitive build
tasks like minification, unit testing, optimisation and linting.
source code files, and document the app’s API.
Facebook Graph API
The Facebook Graph API allows developers to write software which
can read and edit Facebook content and accounts.
The Twitter API allows developers to write software which can
send tweets and messages, and read Twitter content.
Mustache is a simple web template system which strongly
enforces the separation of logic and presentation.
It provides the ‘E’ of the ‘MEAN’ stack.
Survey APIs and web analytics can send user opinions and behaviour to
customer experience management systems.
CentOS is a free Linux distribution from Red Hat, first
released in 2014. Its commonly used for running web servers.
Nodemailer is a Node module for sending emails from a web
server. It has a heavy focus on security.
Google Analytics is the web’s most popular web analytics
service, used by about 50% of the top million websites.
Arms Around The Child is a charity bringing hope, happiness
and respect to children living in extreme adversity.
The AATC Charity
It’s quick and easy to give money to Arms Around The Child on
their donations page, if you live in the UK or the US.
The International HIV/AIDS Alliance is a global partnership to
promote HIV/AIDS issues in developing countries.
All Walks Beyond the Catwalk challenges the fashion industry’s
unachievable and limited body and beauty ideals.
The Academy of Medical Royal Colleges promotes, facilitates
and co-ordinates the Medical Royal Colleges’ work.
Asda Stores Ltd is based in Leeds. It is the third largest
UK supermarket chain after Tesco and Sainsbury’s.
Audio Gold is the London second hand hifi retailer with a
diverse, colourful range of kit and a friendly relaxed atmosphere.
BBC Worldwide Ltd is the commercial subsidiary of the
BBC, created from its predecessor BBC Enterprises in 1995.
The British Broadcasting Corporation, founded in 1922, is a
British public service broadcaster based in London.
Blinkbox is the original name for TalkTalk TV Store,
and was one of the UK’s first video-on-demand services.
Blockbuster Video was a chain of home movie and video game
rental shops. At its peak in 2004 it employed 84,300 people.
BMW is world’s twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles. It was
founded in 1916 and is based in Munich.
Brightwave Group is a leading agency for next generation
learning solutions, products and services.
Britannia was the second largest building society in the UK
at its peak in 2007, based on total assets of £36.8 billion.
Founded in 1846, British Telecommunications plc is the UK’s
biggest mobile, fixed-line and broadband provider.
Cadogan Clinic was founded in 2008 by Bryan Mayou, the first
plastic surgeon to practice liposuction in the UK.
Caryn Franklin MBE is a Professor of Diversity in Fashion, and
has been a fashion commentator for nearly 35 years.
Classic British Hotels offer superior quality accommodation,
award-winning restaurants, spas and health clubs.
The CMA Awards
The CMA Awards, previously known as the APA Awards,
is an annual international content marketing event.
The ColArt Group is a large international supplier of art
materials, with brands like Winsor & Newton and
The Daily Telegraph is a national British daily broadsheet
newspaper with a circulation of about 500,000.
Dazed, formerly Dazed & Confused, is a bi-monthly
British magazine founded in 1991, covering music, fashion, film and
Diageo, the world’s second largest distiller, is famous for
Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker, Baileys and Guinness.
EDF Energy is a French power generation firm which
sells gas and electricity to 6 million customers in the UK.
The Ford Motor Company is a US multinational automaker
based in Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford in 1903.
The Ford B-Max
The Ford B-Max is a mini multi-purpose vehicle launched at the
2012 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.
The Global Apollo Programme is a call to make carbon-free
power cheaper than power from coal by the year 2025.
Gok Wan is a British TV presenter, author, DJ and fashion
consultant, best known for his show ‘How to Look Good Naked’.
Green Note is a folk, jazz and world music venue in Camden,
London, created by two friends as the ideal place to hang out.
GVA Grimley provides commercial property
advice and services, and has a regional network
of 11 UK offices.
Headmasters is a chain of hairdressing salons in the UK. The
first branch opened in Wimbledon Village in 1982.
HelloWorld, previously named ePrize, is a digital
engagement agency specialising in online competitions.
House of Windsor
The House of Windsor is the British royal dynasty. It
succeeded the House of Hanover following the death of Queen Victoria.
Kandi is a multipurpose London agency working across digital,
video and print. It has a varied skill set and versatile team.
Kurt Geiger, founded in 1963, is a UK footwear and accessories
retailer with 70 stores and over 170 concessions.
Land Rover is a UK car brand specialising in off-road
vehicles, including the Defender, Discovery and Range Rover
Loop.Coop, founded in 2010, is a Brighton based cooperative of
artists, inventors, programmers, musicians and makers.
MacUser was a British monthly magazine aimed at Apple Mac
users, known for its striking graphic design style.
Make Real is a Brighton digital agency building
collaborative ‘serious games’ and virtual reality experiences.
There are 15 Malmaison hotels in the UK, which each
offer a stylish and eclectic boutique hotel experience.
Mark Fast is a luxury knitwear designer, worn by celebrity
fans like Tilda Swinton, Grace Jones and Rihanna.
Movimientos is an artist agency, promoter, event programmer
and record label specialising in Latin American music.
MSK was Japan’s largest independent PV solar panel
manufacturer, until it was purchased by Suntech in 2006.
Swiss company Neidhart is a distributor of radio controlled
models such as cars, drones, planes and boats.
Founded in Somerset, UK, New Look is a fashion retailer with a
chain of over 1000 shops around the world.
Nu Creative is an independent strategic and creative
marketing agency, founded in London in 2004.
OpinionLab is system for gathering website visitor feedback,
which can then be used to improve customer experience.
Personal Computer World, 1978 - 2009, was the first British
computer magazine. Its circulation reached 150,000.
Pragmatic is a Brighton agency specialising in the design,
development and maintenance of WordPress websites.
PricewaterhouseCoopers is the world’s second largest
professional services firm, and one of the Big Four auditors.
Publicis Groupe, founded in Paris in 1926, is one of the
largest marketing and communications companies in the world.
Radio Times, launched in 1923, is a British weekly TV and
radio listings magazine. Its circulation is around 500,000.
RCI is the world’s largest timeshare broker, with 6000
resorts in 100 countries and nearly four million members.
Redwood is a London agency with 200 staff specialising in
customer magazines and website content, design and build.
Rtister is an online fashion retailer based in London,
showcasing the best in contemporary womenswear.
Saatchi & Saatchi
Saatchi & Saatchi is a communications and ad agency
with 140 offices in 76 countries and over 6,500 staff.
Schneider National is one of the largest truckload carriers in
the US, with 10,000 drivers hauling 20,000 loads per day.
The Society of Chemical Industry was set up in 1881 “to
further the application of chemistry for the public benefit”.
Selfridges & Co, is a high end department store chain
in the UK, founded by Harry Gordon Selfridge in 1909.
Skytours offers sunshine holidays to a wide range of
destinations from European classics to faraway places.
SmartFocus Message Cloud delivers seven million email
campaigns each year, and provides marketing insights.
Sony is a Tokyo-based multinational which has gaming,
entertainment, financial and electronics divisions.
Storm is a model agency in Chelsea, London. Its clients
include Kate Moss, Cindy Crawford and Emma Watson.
Tesco is the third largest retailer in the world measured by
profits, with stores in 12 countries across Europe and Asia.
The Thackeray Estate portfolio has properties around Old
Brompton Rd and Kensington Square, London.
Thomson runs package holidays, hotels, resorts, a cruise line,
an airline and the UK’s largest travel agent chain.
Time UK, formerly IPC is a consumer magazine and
digital publisher. Its many titles have circulation of 350 million
Toyota, founded in 1937, is the largest listed company in
Japan, and the world’s largest vehicle manufacturer.
VNU, now The Nielsen Company, was a Dutch publisher of consumer
magazines, newspapers and business titles.
Volvo Cars is a Swedish vehicle manufacturer established in
1927 with approximately 2,500 local dealers worldwide.
Winsor & Newton
Founded in 1832, Winsor & Newton is a London based
manufacturer of artists’ materials with a history of innovation.
Zurich employs 50,000 staff in more than 170 countries, making
it one of the largest insurance groups in the world,